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December 16, 2014

Antipasto, Primo, Secondo; How to Order Food in Italy

How many times have you sat down to eat in Italy and just sat there, staring at the menu perplexed as to how and what to order? Let's begin by explaining the various items listed on a menu in Italy.

First of all, an antipasto is an appetizer. The list of antipasti might include a savory mousse, a salad or a small version of what might otherwise qualify as a second course. Antipasti are more elaborate than the stuzzichini which are fairly simple snacks: pizza, small fried or baked snacks.

primo is a first course; the list of primi includes soups, pastas, rices and other similar items. You might find the word Minestre instead of Primi. Minestre is the first course that comes after the antipasto. It can be dry, such as a pasta dish or liquid such as a soup. Minestre however is often used to refer to liquid first courses; after all, we have various categories of liquid first courses. We have zuppa (soup), vellutata (velloutè: smooth soup), chunky vegetable soups with pasta (ie minestrone, ribollita), tortellini in brodo, passatelli in brodo o zuppa imperiale which we consider a minestra and not a soup. Baked pasta is also considered a minestra

A secondo is a second course and is often composed of a protein, be it cheese, seafood, meat (chicken, turkey, beef, pork, lamb, etc) or eggs. This item may or may not come with vegetables or a side dish.

Contorni or side dishes. Side dishes usually are vegetables prepared in a variety of ways including grigliate (grilled), al forno (oven roasted), lessate (boiled). In Italy, don't expect pasta to be a side dish  (ever!)

Dolci are desserts and these are often divided into torte which are cakes; dolci al cucchiao are soft desserts to be eaten with a spoon (think mascarpone cream, tiramisù or panna cotta), gelati are ice creams and semifreddi that while are reminiscent of a gelato, are more complex with often an accompanying sauce.

Coffee is usually served after dessert. While some places will bring you whatever you want, not all will. If you are in a sophisticated place you might appreciate knowing that that cappuccinos are considered a breakfast drink so if you order one after 11am, it is akin to ordering chocolate milk.

After coffee, you might order a digestif or amaro, literally a bitter which aids digestion or a fine whisky or grappa which you will find under Distillati. If you don't see these on the menu, ask. In some places, the trattoria will bring a few bottles of their home made liquors for you to try including licorice, basil and the more famous limoncello. Please know that these are offered by the house and as common courtesy you are expected not to have more than a shot glass or two, at most!

Good to know: Now that you know what's what on the menu, let's tackle some details.

How much to order? Several of my students have recounted how they felt pressured by waiters to order an antipasto (appetizer), a primo (a first course), a secondo (a second course) and a dolce (dessert). No one, should feel pressured to order all that food, although a restaurant might be understandably perplexed if all you wish to eat is an antipasto and you are by yourself.

For your information, Italians rarely order a dish from each course. It is customary to order 2 dishes, for example:
  • antipasto with either a primo or secondo
  • primo and secondo
  • primo OR secondo and dessert
  • primo OR secondo and a side dish
Also, while not everyone does it, some couples will split a dish or two. I know a couple who will split every course, thus ordering 1 antipasto, 1 first course, 1 second course and 1 dessert. I usually split dessert or a first course with my husband.

There is only one don't that I can think of. Don't expect to get your ordered food in any order other than the category that they belong to, ie., antipasti come first, then first courses, then the second courses and side dishes, then dessert, then coffee and then any after dinner drinks. For example, a side dish with your pasta is a no-no. A first course dish served with your second course dish is another unusual thing.

While a casual place may not care in which order you eat your food and thus may agree to serve the food in the order you requested, don't be surprised if it doesn't come to fruition. The chronological order of the food is so ingrained in Italian culture that while the waiter has agreed to it, the kitchen will send out the dishes in the original, preordained order. 

Don't be surprised if you see your menu divided into Mare and Terra. That means that all seafood (Mare) have their section of primi and secondi while the vegetables and meat (chicken, turkey, beef, pork, lamb, etc) are considered earth (Terra) and have their separate section of primi and secondi.

Frozen foodstuffs: Eating places are required to declare if they are using frozen products. You will see this in small print at the bottom of the menu.

Coperto: this item lists what the eating places charges for the bread, oil and vinegar and other items they may serve that you haven't ordered. The use of tablecloths as well as cloth napkins might be included so naturally expect the fancier the place, the higher the coperto. The price of the coperto needs to be declared on the menu.

Tipping: Tipping is not necessary and is never added to your bill. All workers receive a regular salary so there is no need to tip in order to round out a salary. However, if you feel that you've been treated particularly well you could tip 10%. Tipping too much shows that you are a tourist! Especially never tip in a bar, caffe', tavola calda or Osteria. There's the second no-no.

I hope I've helped you understand some of the intricacies of the Italian menu. Buon Appetito!

September 22, 2014

2014 Cooking Tour

Maribel will be travelling to Massachusetts to teach Bolognese cooking as well as Cooking with Kale (Tuscan style). While the majority of the events scheduled are private events organized by friends, there is one event open to the public.

I will be teaching a cookery class on traditional Bolognese specialties at Shubie's MarketPlace in Marblehead, Massachusetts http://shubies-hub.com/

The menu selected is a typical informal meal with Bolognese friends; while generous in terms of number of dishes, the recipes are simple to make.

Our menu at Shubies is as follows:
~ with Italian Charcuterie, Seasonal Fruit with Prosciutto/Speck and Mortadella Mousse.
~ Pasta with Ragu Bolognese
~ Seasonal vegetable dish
~ A "Caprese", a Flourless, Moist Chocolate Cake
~ Italian Semifreddo with fruit garnish

Shubie's Signature wines will be sampled with the food.

In order to reserve your seat, you need to contact Shubies' directly at 781-631-0149.
Space is limited. Reserve Today!

While I am in the USA, our team will still be available to teach in Bologna so if you are in Italy, go ahead and write me an email (see upper right hand corner) to schedule a cooking lesson in Bologna.
Peach semifreddo

Flourless Chocolate Cake (gluten free) 

September 20, 2014

Is It A Sauce Or A Ragu'?

Tagliatelle al Ragù (Bolognese)
Ever wonder what the difference is between a Ragu' and Sauce? You might think that they are one and the same since they all go with pasta. But there are differences which I will try to explain.

"Sugo" or sauce is a general term that indicates a fluid sauce. It can be a simple tomato sauce like a marinara or can include whole plum tomatoes and some other ingredients, cut small.


A ragu' is a thick, chunky sauce usually made by cooking several kinds of meat in a sauce, usually tomato. That said, a ragu' can also made with seafood, vegetables or a combination of these. 


The most famous ragu's in Italy are the Bolognese and the Napoletan but almost every region (and sometimes cities) have their own ragu'. In fact, its not necessary to specify which ragu' you are preparing or talking about unless you are talking about a ragu' from a different town!


A Bolognese ragu' is made with ground meat cooked with vegetables and a small amount of concentrated tomato, added for color. The Bolognese ragu' is served with tagliatelle pasta. The Napoletan ragu' has lots of onions and a big chuck of beef that cooks in the tomatoes for many hours. You are supposed to serve the beef flavored sauce with spaghetti or linguine pasta and serve the meat as a second course. Still the "sauce" is considered a ragu'. The Pugliese ragu' includes several types of meats including ribs, porkchops and beef. The "sauce" is served with orecchiette pasta while the meats are served as a second course. And again, the "sauce" is considered a ragu'. 


Its interesting to note that East coast American-Italians call their meat sauce "gravy" instead of sauce. Its clear that the old timers who emigrated to the US wanted to differentiate the fluid, tomato sauce from the meat sauce; just like the relatives back home distinguish "sugo" from "ragu".


Buon appetito!





June 27, 2014

Summer in Bologna

The weather's been unexpectedly mild. Mostly cool at night but warm and sometimes muggy during the day. But hey, who is complaining with all the wonderful things to do at night.

Just grab a nice gelato (from one of my favorite places) and head on to one of these events one evening.

There is the Slow Food market that takes place every Wednesday evening in Piazzetta Pasolini (Cinema Lumière), in via Azzo Gardino street in the Giardino Klemlen. You can buy your fruit, vegetables, organic bread and baked goods, cheeses, eggs... but you can also buy handcrafted beer, wine, enjoy cooked seafood and listen to music. Its a great way to spend some time with friends and enjoy the warm weather. For more info click here, please remember its on Wednesday evening (not on Monday).

Then there's the free evening movie in the main square: Piazza Maggiore shown in the original language with subtitles. For the complete schedule, check the Bologna Welcome site here.

There are numerous, mostly free, concerts that take place in town, for every age group and pocket. Check the Bologna Be' site.


June 25, 2014

The Best Gelato in Bologna


Taste of Italy.com
Cremeria Santo Stefano
No matter what the temperature, Italian gelato is always popular way to entertain our palate! Some of my favorite shops (all with lactose-free, vegan and gluten-free options) follow, in no particular order:

Cremerie Santo Stefano, Via Santo Stefano 14 Galleria 49 (ex-Stefino's), for its fabulous almond Sicilian granita and its Cream with a hint of lemon zest ice cream.

Stefino Bio, Stefino separated from his partners (above) and has opened shop on via San Vitale. A good number of his gelatos, sorbetti an granita are dairy-free and even vegan. All ingredients are organic.

Cremeria Scirocco in Via Barelli 1/C, Bologna, BO 40138.
fabulous and unusual flavors, all rigorously made with high quality and natural ingredients.

Gelatauro on via San Vitale
Any of their chocolate flavors (chocolate with hot pepper, chocolate laced with orange) or creamy nutty  flavours are fabulous.

Sorbetteria Castiglione, in Via Castiglione 44 for its fabulous dark chocolate and cassata Siciliana flavors.

The Sorbetteria has expanded and now has 2 outposts on Via Murri 81 and in Via Saragozza 83 (on the way up or back from San Luca, which is another good reason to visit San Luca!)

Although fattier and/or sweeter than my tastebuds are used to, many of my friends swear by these Gelaterie:

Cremeria Funivia, Piazza Cavour 1

Gelateria Islanda, Via Saragozza 65

Grom on via d'Azeglio. While they do use several Slow Food Presidium ingredients in their ice creams, Grom gelato is not an artisanal product as they receive the ingredients and mixes from their headquarters in Piedmont.

PS don't abide by any of the lists you see out there, do your own research and decide for yourself :)!

Another article on Gelato in Bologna:  http://ciaobologna.wordpress.com/2012/08/30/the-best-gelaterias-in-bologna/